Our Content is Reviewed by Doctors, Nurses and Specialists

Our Symptom Checker care guides are derived from the professional protocols used by nurses in medical call centers and physician practices. The content is rigorously reviewed by panels of healthcare professionals, comprised of:

  • Call center medical directors
  • Primary care physicians
  • Emergency physicians
  • Physician specialists
  • Triage nurses
  • Specialty nurses

Each year, once the review process is completed for the professional protocol versions, the Symptom Checker content is edited to ensure its compatibility and consistency with any updates made. The care guides are updated based upon recent medical literature, recent national guidelines, quality improvement projects, research, expert reviews and feedback from clients and users.



ErinThe Authors are grateful to the following individuals, for their time and expertise in reviewing some of the pediatric clinical content that has been incorporated into these guidelines.


Medical Directors of Call Centers

    • Peter Dehnel, MD, Children’s Physician Network, Minneapolis, MN
    • Lee‐Anne Facey‐Crowther, MD, Sykes Assistance Services Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Andrew Hertz, MD, Rainbow Babies Children’s Hospital, Cleveland, OH
    • Randy Sterkel, MD, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, St. Louis, MO

Emergency Medicine Specialists

    • Lalit Bajaj, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
    • Joan Bothner, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
    • Alison Brent, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
    • Joseph Grubenhoff, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado
    • George Sam Wang, MD, Children’s Hospital Colorado

Community Pediatrician Advisory Board: Children’s Hospital Colorado

    • Erin Ambardekar, MD, Children’s Medical Center, Denver, CO
    • Matt Dorighi, MD, Cherry Creek Pediatrics, Denver, CO
    • Daniel Feiten, MD, Greenwood Pediatrics, Centennial, CO
    • Jay Markson, MD, Children’s Medical Center, Denver, CO
    • Robert Mauro, MD, Greenwood Pediatrics, Littleton, CO
    • Martha Middlemist, MD, Pediatrics at 5280, Englewood, CO
    • Michelle Stanford, MD, Centennial Pediatrics, Centennial, CO
    • Stephanie Stevens, MD, Advanced Pediatric Associates, Aurora, CO

Community Pediatrician Advisory Board: St. Louis Children’s Hospital

    • Tara Copper, MD, Emergency Medicine, Washington University SOM
    • Robert Kebler, MD, Community Pediatrician, Suburban Pediatrics
    • Ted Kremer, MD, Esse Health Pediatrics
    • Steve Lillpop, MD, Community Pediatrician, Jacksonville Pediatrics
    • Mark Lowe, MD, Pediatrics Department Administration, Washington University SOM
    • Jerome O’Neil, MD, Community Pediatrician, Southwest Pediatrics
    • Rachel Orscheln, MD, Infectious Disease, Washington University SOM
    • Casey Pruitt, MD, Pediatric Hospitalist, St. Louis Children’s Hospital
    • David Sonderman, MD, Community Pediatrician, Children’s Clinic
    • Kristin Stahl, MD, Community Pediatrician, Heartland Pediatrics
    • Randy Sterkel, MD, Answer Line Medical Director, Community Pediatrician,
    • Esse Health Pediatrics


    • Bonnie Offit, MD, Office of Digital Health, Clinical Advisor, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA

Telephone Triage Nurses: Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO

    • Teresa Baird, RN
    • Teresa Hegarty, RN
    • Kelly Kering-Rank, RN
    • Jaime Klein, RN
    • Kathleen Martinez, RN
    • Kelli Massaro, RN
    • Deanna Miller, RN
    • Sara Nudd, RN

Telephone Triage Nurses: Other Sites

    • Amy Barrett, RN, Portland, OR
    • Charlene Brophy, RN, Newfoundland, Canada
    • Christine Caraher, RN, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
    • Laticia Humphrey, RN, AccessNurse, TN
    • Teresa Jacobs, RN, Arkansas Children’s Hospital
    • Tiffany Kell, RN, Children’s Mercy – Kansas City
    • Julie Ortiz, RN, Plano, TX
    • Michelle Ramey, RN, Cook Children’s Medical Center, TX
    • Ann Schauer, RN, Sioux City, IA
    • Danielle Smith, RN, Children’s Hospital Wisconsin
    • Lisa Swerczek, RN, St. Louis, MO
    • Maureen Switzer, RN, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital
    • Gina Toner, RN, Children’s Physicians Network, MN

Pediatric Subspecialists: Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO (unless otherwise noted)

    • Adolescent Medicine: David Kaplan, MD, Eric Sigel, MD, Karolyn Kabir, MD, Molly Richards, MD, Amy Sass, MD
    • Allergy: James Shira, MD, Dan Atkins MD
    • Behavior: Ayelet Talmi, PhD, Jeff Dolgan, MD, Kimberly Kelsay, MD
    • Breastfeeding: Lisbeth Gabrielski, RN, Marianne Neifert, MD
    • Cardiology: Michael Schaffer, MD
    • Child Abuse: Andrew Sirotnak, MD, Antonia Chiesa, MD
    • Dentistry: William Mueller, DDS; Elizabeth A. Shick, DDS
    • Dermatology: Anna Bruckner, MD, William Weston, MD, James Fitzpatrick MD, dermatologist and curator of Dermatology Images
    • Diabetes: Guy Todd Alonso, MD, R. Paul Wadwa, MD, Georgeanna Klingensmith, MD
    • Ear Nose and Throat (ENT): Kenneth Chan, MD
    • Endocrinology: Michael Kappy, MD
    • Gastroenterology (GI): David Brumbaugh, MD, Glenn Furuta, MD, Michael Narkewicz, MD, Jason Soden, MD, Judy Sondheimer, MD, Ronald Sokol, MD
    • General Pediatrics: Steven Poole, MD, Stephen Berman, MD, Robert Brayden, MD, Brandi Freeman, MD, Allison Kempe, MD, Maya Bunik, MD
    • Hematology: Taru Hays, MD
    • Infectious Diseases: Samuel Dominguez, MD, Jessica Cataldi, MD, James K. Todd, MD, Mary Glode, MD, Mark Abzug, MD, Elizabeth McFarland, MD, Ann-Christine Nyquist, MD, Harley Rotbart, MD, John Ogle, MD
    • Neonatology: Susan Niermeyer, MD, Elizabeth Thilo, MD, Adam Rosenberg, MD
    • Nephrology: Danielle Soranno, MD, Douglas Ford, MD
    • Nutrition: Nancy Krebs, MD
    • Neurology: Paul Moe, MD, Paul Levisohn, MD, Timothy Bernard, MD, Julie Parsons, MD, Alan Seay, MD
    • Ophthalmology: Robert Enzenauer, MD, Robert King, MD
    • Orthopedics: Robert Eilert, MD, Frank Chang, MD
    • Pulmonary Medicine: Monica Federico, MD, Robin Deterding, MD, Scott Sagel, MD
    • Rheumatology: Roger Hollister, MD
    • Sports Medicine: Julie Wilson, MD, Brooke Pengel, MD
    • Toxicology: George Sam Wang, MD, Richard Dart, MD, Medical Director, Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center
    • Urology: Duncan Wilcox, MD, Jeffrey Campbell, MD, Martin Koyle, MD

American Academy of Pediatrics Appointed Reviewers

    • Jesse Hackell, MD, FAAP, Chair, AAP Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine
    • Mark Corkings, MD, FAAP, Member, AAP Committee on Nutrition
    • Leo Heitlinger, MD, FAAP, Chair, AAP Section on Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
    • Jack Swanson, MD, FAAP, Chair, AAP Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine
    • Allan Lieberthal, MD, FAAP, Member, AAP Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine
    • Nancy Krebs, MD, MS, FAAP, Member, AAP Committee on Nutrition
    • Jennifer Shu, MD, Medical Editor, AAP HealthyChildren website, Atlanta, GA